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Knee Anatomy

Knee Joint: The knee joint is a complex hinge system that allows some rotation as the knee bends and flexes. The knee joins the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia) while the Fibula, which runs parallel to the tibia, and the kneecap (patella), make up the knee joint. The upper part of the knee is formed from the lowermost end of the femur bone comprised of the medial and lateral femoral condyles. The lower part of the knee is formed from the upper tibia bone and has similar medial and lateral prominences.

In the centre of the joint are two smaller prominences that act as insertion points for the internal and cruciate ligaments in the knee. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is closer to the front of the tibia and helps prevent forward movement of the tibia on the femur. The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) lies further back and helps prevent the tibia riding backwards on the femur and also acts as a check point for hyperextension.

The bones that comprise the knee are coated with cartilage to protect from bone-to-bone friction, which acts as a gliding motion when you move the compartments of your knee and leg.

diagram illustrating the anatomy of knee joint lateral view (side)diagram illustrating the anatomy of knee joint from the anterior (Front)

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